Le Duc National Board

Standards

Writing: Thinking Through the Process

    Creating a Productive Learning Environment

    The following three standards form the knowledge base of accomplished career and technical educators. The requisite knowledge of students, subject matter, and learning environment form a foundation for the remaining standards. Only by knowing students well can teachers make instructional decisions appropriate to their unique individual needs. For teachers to practice at an accomplished level, knowledge of students must be combined with a command of subject matter and the ability to create a productive learning environment.

  1. Knowledge of Students
  2. Knowledge of Subject Matter
  3. Learning Environment
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators efficiently manage their classrooms and create an environment that fosters democratic values, risk taking, and a love of learning. In this environment, students develop knowledge, skills, and confidence through contextualized learning activities, independent and collaborative laboratory work, and simulated workplace experiences.)
      • Supportive, collaborative learning environments where students are intellectually challenged and develop new knowledge, skills, and confidence are the result of the skill and hard work of accomplished teachers.
      • Cultivate student interests, value the unique perspectives each student brings to class, and encourage students to devise and solve problems both individually and collectively.
      • Value risk taking and learning that emerges from errors of judgment, confusion, or the challenge of addressing complex problems.
      • Encourage students to recognize that successes and setbacks are both part of the processes of invention, discovery, and creation.
    • Contextualizing Learning Environments
      • Create highly collaborative and cooperative classroom cultures, centered on problem solving and investigation.
      • Carefully organize their classrooms around the principles of high-performance workplaces.
      • Manifest high standards of conduct.
      • Create an environment that values fairness, recognizes and rewards quality work, and offers constructive criticism that directs students toward growth and improvement of skills.
      • Push students to apply their knowledge from project to project, and not merely soak up and store away new knowledge with each new task.
      • Believe it is their responsibility to develop all aspects of students, including their academic, vocational, social, and ethical selves.
      • Cultivate these aspects by deliberately aligning instruction with their knowledge of the ways students learn best— in context, their hands and minds actively involved and engaged in relevant and meaningful tasks.
      • Tailor their instruction to students’ perceptions of what is real and relevant at the moment and what is pertinent to their future—a message that places high value on student initiative and creativity.
      • Are adept at using these different activities to create an environment where students can demonstrate mastery of new skills and knowledge.
    • Managing Classrooms Efficiently
      • Promote the open sharing of ideas and the taking of initiative.
      • Do so expeditiously and fairly and in ways that do not create a continual focus on disruptive behavior.
      • Foster teamwork in the classroom by encouraging productive work.
      • Manage to filter out unimportant actions, reduce disruptions, and distinguish between exuberance and misbehavior among their students.
      • Skillfully juggle the needs of all students to create lessons that result in a high level of student engagement.
      • Are skilled at anticipating difficulties that students may encounter that may disrupt the classroom flow or the collective sense of purpose, enthusiasm, and engagement.
      • Model team-building and collaborative behavior in a variety of ways, including;
        • Through their interaction with students
        • Through the alliances they establish with other educators within and outside the school
        • With educators and citizens in the larger learning community
    • Maintaining Safety
      • Teachers run a tight ship.
      • Make students well aware of safety regulations and laws both in school and at work sites.
      • Understand that mishandling equipment can lead not only to personal harm but also, if the equipment is rendered inoperable, to the loss of potentially valuable learning experiences or financial resources.
    • Creating a Democratic Environment
      • Are receptive to student ideas and interests.
      • Are as attentive to the process of education as they are to student mastery of discrete skills.
      • Are particularly interested in promoting the values of fairness, tolerance, and community.
      • Involve students in the negotiation of classroom rules, routines, and behaviors, as is done in high-performance workplaces.
      • Are also aware that students may bring to the classroom attitudes that run counter to the kinds of democratic values they seek to instill in their students.
        • Confront such attitudes and model alternative behaviors and frames of mind that will serve students in their future employment.
      • Also demonstrate skill in bringing students with exceptional needs into the mainstream of classroom life.
      • Use the diversity of the class as a strength.
    • Encouraging Love of Learning, Invention, and Risk Taking
      • Work to establish a culture of inquisitiveness and exploration.
      • Model and carefully nurture the interests of all students.
      • Are passionate and enthusiastic about their field and driven by a love of learning for learning's sake.
      • Are intellectually adventurous and more than willing to share their discoveries in many areas with their students.
      • Continually push themselves and their students to do their best and to be persistent about "getting the job done."
      • Are problem solvers and are not easily dissuaded from doing what is best for students.
      • Cultivate students’ enthusiasm for and pride in their own discoveries.
      • Select projects that evolve and unfold—that begin with student interest and eventually take on more student direction.
      • Create flexible assignments that encourage student creativity and problem solving.
      • Allow them to take on projects themselves, decreasing direct teaching and increasingly coaching from the sidelines.
      • Foster student empowerment by;
        • Validating independent thinking
        • Encouraging inquisitiveness
        • Celebrating competence
  4. Diversity
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators create an environment where equal treatment, fairness, and respect for diversity are modeled, taught, and practiced by all. They take steps to ensure quality career and technical learning opportunities for all students.)
      • Strive to make sure that, regardless of an individual’s background, all are treated with fairness and respect.
      • Ensure that their students leave their programs understanding the attitudes and behaviors that are likely to bring them success in the world of work.
      • Seek to ensure that quality CTE programs are available to all.
    • Creating Environments Where Equity, Fairness, and Diversity Are Modeled, Taught, and Practiced
      • Model and promote the behavior necessary for a multicultural society.
      • Conscientiously demonstrate in their own behaviors the kind of treatment they expect from their students and others.
      • Are aware that the collaborative working environment so important in developing their students’ skills also provides special opportunities and challenges.
      • Know that a diversity of backgrounds often means a diversity of skills
      • Provide opportunities for students to work to their own strengths as well as learn from those whose strengths are different.
      • Know that for some of their students, being aware of and responding appropriately to the differences in the group may be a new experience, and they are therefore careful to help such students understand both how to conduct themselves in an appropriate manner and why it is important to do so.
      • Understand that some students may harbor beliefs that are at odds with the attitudes they, as teachers and mentors, are working to develop.
      • Respond directly to such challenges, emphasizing the importance of equality, fairness, and respect both in the community and the workplace.
    • Preparing Students for the Diversity of the Workplace
      • Know that students who work collaboratively stand a greater chance of succeeding in the workplace.
      • Not only prepare their students with skills needed to work on teams but also prepare them to do so with attention to issues of diversity.
      • Recognize the importance of exposing their students to individuals and cultures that might be new to them and provide opportunities in their ongoing program for such exposure.
      • Know that the key to successful collaboration is communication.
      • Supply their students with occasions to practice and improve their communication skills, paying particular attention to how interactions may change (or not change) when someone from a different cultural background is involved.
      • Give their students opportunity to practice their interactive skills, allowing, for example, a group to role play a conflict in the workplace.
      • Help their students understand the attitudes and behaviors likely to bring them success, as well as those that may cause disruption or dissent in the workplace.
      • Help students understand legislation and policies that are related to fairness and equity, such as laws relating to sexual harassment and affirmative action.
      • Are aware that some students may misunderstand or have strong feelings about such regulations and that others may already have had direct experience in these areas.
      • Build on their students’ knowledge base by sharing additional information and by providing opportunities for students to discuss the way these work rules may affect their lives.
    • Ensuring Access to Quality Career and Technical Learning
      • Are aware that historically, not all students have had access to quality career and technical education.
      • Strive to ensure that all students have access to highquality programs.
      • Continually review and refine their programs, and they monitor their students to ensure that all are given equal access to curriculum and are exposeKnow that an individual student’s physical challenges may present an additional barrier in terms of access to equipment.d to additional options, as well.
      • Advocate within their schools for the dissolution of this unnatural barrier and, wherever possible, build bridges to their colleagues throughout the school.
      • Adapt equipment to students’ special needs, seek equivalent learning opportunities at alternative sites, or, if needed, help match the student with more appropriate learning experiences.
  5. Advancing Student Learning

    An extensive knowledge base about human growth and development, subject matter, and the creation of productive learning environments only benefits students if teachers are able to put such knowledge into practice. The next two standards describe the joining of teachers' knowledge about students, subject matter, and pedagogy with professional judgment. Included in this section are the ways teachers use an extensive instructional repertoire to encourage student mastery of knowledge and the ways teachers encourage student success through assessment practices.

  6. Advancing Knowledge of Career and Technical Subject Matter
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators foster experiential, conceptual, and performance-based student learning of career and technical subject matter and create important, engaging activities for students that draw upon an extensive repertoire of methods, strategies, and resources. Their practice is also marked by their ability to integrate career and technical and academic disciplines productively.
      • Are focused on general or specific industry knowledge, they do so within a classroom of invention and production that demands an extensive repertoire in experiential learning.
      • Use many strategies, like contextualized learning, both real and simulated and within and outside the classroom.
        • These strategies include;
          • Work-based learning
          • Clinical internships
          • Apprenticeships
          • Cooperative education
          • Entrepreneurship
          • School-based enterprises
          • The use of performance-based evaluation
          • Project- or product-based learning
      • Design instruction to engage students in wrestling with and gaining command of important ideas, concepts, theories, facts, and skills, as opposed to just memorizing discrete facts and procedures.
      • Teach theory in addition to production skills, creating a marriage of both hand and mind learning.
      • Use real world activities in a variety of ways, matching the developmental levels of their students with appropriate opportunities to extend the classroom beyond the school.
    • Creating Engaging Learning Activities That Enhance Student Mastery of Knowledge
      • Draw on their knowledge of the disciplines and career and technical content and skills to create learning activities aligned with their goals for students.
      • Design programs and activities that integrate academic and career and technical content and that help students;
        • Come to grips with the key issues
        • Concepts
        • Competencies, and
        • Skills necessary for work in a specific industry and for employment in general.
      • Take care to ensure that their work meshes with industry standards, current issues in the field, and themes central to the industry structure within which they practice.
      • Help students understand how to see their field through many lenses.
      • Devise activities that draw on multiple disciplines in addition to career and technical content.
      • Design projects that
        • Help students understand the potential breadth of tasks within a field,
        • Practice and develop the kinds of academic skills that might be brought to a given job
        • Develop some of the specific skills and techniques that are used to solve problems within a given industry.
      • See and understand the needs and demands of a whole project.
        • Often, projects are broken down into their constituent parts so that students are better able to understand the theoretical constructs that undergird them.
      • Integrate career and technical and academic content, both across academic disciplines and throughout the high school curriculum and beyond.
      • Understand that the purpose of integration is not just to broaden career and technical projects for the sake of breadth alone, but to mirror the blending of disciplines found in the world.
      • May create projects or activities, such as schoolbased enterprises, that naturally require students to draw on knowledge and skills in many disciplines.
      • May collaborate with colleagues in other departments to design multidisciplinary instruction.
      • Purposefully target specific career and technical and academic understandings that students need to develop.
      • Design and implement projects that;
        • Provide students with opportunities for problem solving and,
        • That assist them in developing the critical habits of mind that allow them to make sense of what they are learning and how it relates to the bigger picture of the industry or system they are studying.
      • Expose students to a variety of techniques for negotiating an activity or project.
      • Orchestrate the class around a series of key questions such as the following:
        • What literature is available that can help me?
        • What expertise can I draw upon?
        • What is potentially dangerous?
        • What resources do I have and how shall I use them?
        • What are the potential gains, losses, and risks of a given course of action?
      • Encourage students to take measured risks when the path to solving a problem is unclear and to experience failure and learn how to recover.
      • Work collaboratively to establish work site learning activities or internships and ensure supervision of students in these situations.
      • Know how to ensure that quality learning is going on when students are off-site.
        • Structure such experiences around explicit objectives, training plans, and assessment processes.
    • Guiding Students in the Acquisition of Knowledge
      • Must carefully;
        • Diagnose current student skill levels in the work process
        • Help and support students when necessary, and
        • Gradually remove support structures as students learn to manage on their own.
      • Are astute at understanding the type of support each student needs and acting effectively on these judgments to design tasks appropriate to the work of the students in each class.
      • Take advantage of this relationship through attention to three key debriefing activities.
        1. They carefully debrief all activities by helping students identify what precisely has been learned, helping students understand and appreciate both the final outcome as well as the knowledge and skills they have developed and demonstrated.
        2. Teachers help students reflect on their own thinking to illuminate and then analyze their problem-solving strategies. Teachers skillfully lead students in this analysis, which includes questions such as the following:
          • What did you do and why?
          • What risks did you take and to what purpose?
          • What could you do differently next time?
        3. Teachers help students understand their personal learning processes. Through this exercise, students become cognizant of their strengths and weaknesses and how to apply this knowledge in new learning situations.
    • Utilizing a Variety of Materials and Resources
      • Take into account several factors in their decision making.
      • Are careful to select, adapt, and create only those materials that meet specified criteria and standards for quality.
      • Judiciously select from an abundant array of resources to enhance student learning.
      • Create a rich classroom environment that simulates the world of work.
      • Are skilled at garnering and developing resources in the community at large and within the school itself.
      • Make use of a wide range of resources from many different sources to create an engaging learning experience.
      • Develop a resource base representing multiple media:
        • Written examples
        • Electronic media
        • Current and historical samples from the workplace.
      • Increase student understanding of the lesson at hand.
      • Develop students’ ability to think comprehensively about their work.
      • Resources broadly represent;
        • Form
        • Style
        • Gender appeal and awareness
        • Cultural background
        • Level of difficulty.
      • Are resourceful in locating the necessary ingredients for quality instruction, including the development of student-run enterprises and service-learning activities.
      • Are astute in using a range of resources, because in doing so, they provide students with multiple avenues to understanding, thus increasing the likelihood that students will grasp the important ideas, concepts, and skills teachers wish to impart.
      • Make judicious use of current highquality technologies in order to ensure that students are adequately prepared for the changing world.
      • Are up-to-date on the range of resources specific to the industry cluster in which they specialize.
      • Stay abreast of the changes and seek alternate ways for students to learn and understand modern technology firsthand.
  7. Assessment
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators utilize a variety of assessment methods to obtain useful information about student learning and development, to assist students in reflecting on their own progress, and to refine their teaching.)
      • Use assessment to determine individual student progress and to guide decision making about the effectiveness of teaching strategies for the class as a whole.
      • Develop their own tools for assessment to ensure a good fit between the assessment tool and the goals they have set for their students.
      • Teachers also teach students to assess and monitor their own progress.
    • Assessment for a Variety of Purposes
      • Use informal assessment, monitoring student work on a regular basis to encourage student;
        • Initiative
        • Responsibility, and
        • Ownership of a project as the masterapprentice relationship evolves.
      • Adjust student assignments and work on the basis of information gleaned from assessments.
      • Help students consider results critically, analyzing them to understand the;
        • Theoretical constructs
        • Discrete skills
        • Problem-solving processes, and
        • Learning styles they reveal.
      • Use of portfolios, for example, teachers help students select meaningful work that illustrates their growing accomplishments, knowledge, skills, and interests.
    • Utilizing a Variety of Assessment Methods
      • Are knowledgeable about a broad array of assessment methods and issues from which they select approaches that are well matched to their instructional goals and purposes.
      • Know that;
        • The range of important objectives they have and
        • The student skills and understandings they seek to gauge usually cannot be captured with a single assessment, and
        • That tracking student progress requires frequent sampling of student work and thinking.
      • Are adept at utilizing methodologies, such as portfolios, videotapes, demonstrations, exhibitions, and work-based assessments.
      • Are knowledgeable about industry and workplace standards appropriate to their area of expertise, including national skills standards and industry certification and licensure standards.
        • Build their assessment tools and methodologies around these standards.
      • Are able to articulate the unique strengths and weaknesses of different assessment vehicles and communicate their findings effectively to students and their families.
    • Helping Students Understand Their Progress
      • Make sure students understand from the beginning what is expected of them and what the goals and standards of the work are.
      • Increase student awareness of goals and expectations with regard to a variety of benchmarks—including;
        • Personal
        • Workplace, and
        • School goals.
      • Use a variety of methods to help students become adept at assessing themselves in various situations.
    • Assessment as an Opportunity for Feedback
      • View assessment as an opportunity to validate risk taking, invention, and learning from experiments that may not go according to plan.
      • Understand the role teacher and employer feedback can play in;
        • Initiating students’ selfreflection
        • Setting a course of action for improvement, and
        • Documenting progress for parents and other interested stakeholders.
      • Understand that constructive feedback is an important opportunity to communicate to students attitudes that foster an effective learning environment:
        • Regard for their students
        • A genuine desire to help them do well, and
        • A collaborative spirit of teamwork.
      • Take care to work collaboratively with employers to ensure quality experiences for students.
      • Educate employers on how to assess students.
      • Assist employers in the assessment of students.
  8. Helping Students Transition to Work and Adult Roles

    In addition to developing in their students proficient levels of workplace skills, accomplished career and technical educators also recognize the importance of preparing their students for work and adult roles that will begin when their students leave the world of formal education. This preparation includes the development of workplace readiness skills, the ability to manage multiple life roles, and social competence.

  9. Workplace Readiness
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators develop student career decision-making and employability skills by creating opportunities for students to gain understanding of workplace cultures and expectations.)
      • Know that although advancing student understanding of the particulars of specific industries is important, this alone is not sufficient without an understanding of workplace culture and expectations and the development of employability skills.
      • Foster this understanding and ensure that students can apply this knowledge to their own career decision making.
    • Helping Students with Career Decision Making
      • Understand that student decision making relies on a host of factors, including;
          • Experience and exposure
          • Family aspirations
          • Peer views, and
          • Student perceptions of their own talents.
      • Create class laboratory activities and processes to illustrate certain aspects of work associated with particular career choices.
      • Take time to guide students in decision making toward promising paths in the students’ fields of interest.
      • Encourage students to think expansively about the range of possibilities that lie before them and identify career paths that are best suited to their interests.
      • Take responsibility to guide students in their decision-making processes.
      • Help students to think deeply and purposefully, enabling them to make sound decisions about the steps teachers might take following high school.
      • Provide opportunities for students to;
        • Read further about their fields of interest
        • Meet with experienced workers in particular industries to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a particular career path, or
        • To converse with their peers about the decisions they all face.
      • Recognize their obligation to help students navigate uncertain terrain of family and social mores.
    • Developing Employability Skills
      • Know that in addition to an extensive, industry-specific knowledge base, employers often place great stock in generic workplace skills and dispositions.
        • Teachers seek to help students develop these assets.
      • Design classroom activities that help students develop a strong work and personal ethic that include learning how to plan for success and how to take responsibility for one’s own tasks and assignments.
      • Teach students how to work effectively with coworkers and clients from diverse backgrounds and of ability levels different from their own.
      • Create opportunities for students to develop the ability;
        • To teach others new skills,
        • To satisfy customer or client expectations, and
        • To work with their peers to settle disputes born of honest differences of the sort that might emerge in the workplace.
      • Develop students’ systems knowledge, ensuring that students understand how social, organizational, and technological systems work, operate effectively, and interrelate.
    • Understanding Workplace Culture and Expectations
      • Construct classroom lessons and design work-based learning opportunities that provide opportunities for students to learn about high performance workplace standards and current industry practice,
        • Such as total quality management production techniques.
      • Design projects;
        • To stretch student knowledge
        • Engender perseverance and risk taking, and
        • Encourage students to take increasing responsibility for honing skills.
      • Help students develop an understanding of workplace rights and such matters as;
        • Health-care policies and procedures
        • Worker’s compensation plans, and
        • Government policies that affect such matters.
      • Help students learn how to address employers about illegal or harmful workplace practices and other issues that directly affect the safety and rights of the students and others.
      • Astute at helping students understand the complexity and subtlety issues of sexual harassment and discrimination.
      • Help students develop the ability to quickly read the workplace environment and understand its norms and expectations.
      • Help students navigate the not-so-hidden agenda or subtext that governs the workplace environment;
        • To know when to take initiative and
        • When to step back and
        • When and if to seek alternative ways of airing their concerns.
  10. Managing and Balancing Multiple Life Roles
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators develop in students an understanding of the competing demands and responsibilities that are part of the world of work and guide students as they begin to balance those roles in their own lives.)
      • Balance specific industry knowledge, workplace know-how, and specific employability skills with a broader understanding of the life roles that students will assume beyond the world of work.
      • Understand that students must make choices about a variety of roles in their lives, from the relationships within their families and with peers to more structured relationships in the community and with employers.
      • Work with students as they manage these roles and responsibilities.
    • Balancing Life Roles
      • Understand that as adults, students must balance competing responsibilities and obligations, which include;
        • Understanding and making decisions about which responsibilities they will undertake and
        • When they will undertake them.
      • Know that it is useful for students to have available a range of strategies for making decisions and therefore include in their curriculum discussion of such issues and examples of a variety of strategies students may find useful.
      • Know that regardless of choices made, challenges will arise.
        • Help students begin to prepare for these challenges by starting to think through their own coping mechanisms.
      • Teach students to recognize that balance and trade-offs are often necessary when their chosen roles conflict with their work responsibilities.
      • Discuss family vs. work life dilemmas with students and consider with them a range of strategies that might be useful in dealing with the unpredictability of life, including family life.
      • Are realistic, helping students to understand;
        • That often there are no easy answers,
        • That priorities and values may conflict, and
        • That the available choices may seem limiting and unfair.
      • Help students recognize the importance of understanding the cultural and social norms of the workplace and adapting their language and behavior to that which is most appropriate for the given situation.
      • Help model the appearance, language, and behavior that will best serve students in their chosen line of work.
      • Recognize that outside mentors can also serve as models for appropriate behavior and can communicate the importance of shifing from what is acceptable community language and behavior to the langauge and behavior of the workplace.
    • Understanding Personal Economics and Managing Daily Life
      • Prepare students to manage their personal financial affairs successfully.
      • Help students understand how to be good consumers and decision makers about products and services.
      • Help students learn how to manage and balance their finances with their obligations and needs.
      • Discuss with students when to save, when to spend, and how to plan for unforeseen circumstances.
    • Preparing for Community Involvement
      • Help them understand how to be contributing members of a community.
      • Often encourage students to volunteer in door-to-door canvassing, letter writing, fund raising, or community clean-up activities.
      • Strive to provide opportunities for students to discover that they can make a difference in the quality of their own lives and the lives of their families and others in the community.
      • Encourage participation in democratic institutions.
      • Make sure students understand the fundamental democratic rights, responsibilities, and processes that are part of being a United States citizen.
      • Encourage debate, conversation, and careful consideration of issues in the development of informed opinions.
  11. Social Development
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators develop in students selfawareness, confidence, character, leadership, and sound personal, social, and civic values and ethics.)
      • Recognize that students seek independence from their families at the same time they develop ties to adults in the workplaces they are in the process of joining.
      • Work with students to ease this transition, demonstrating what it means to think and act as a caring and ethical human being.
    • Fostering Development of Students’ Self-Awareness, Confidence, and Character
      • Know that developing the social and emotional side of students is also critical.
      • Observe, cultivate, and assess the social development of their students, noting their;
        • Classroom comfort,
        • Relationships with friends,
        • Sense of belonging,
        • Character,
        • Integrity, and
        • Concern for others.
      • Learn of their students’ concerns and aspirations and determine if and when students need advice and guidance.
      • Offer students encouragement and direction in how to communicate ideas and feelings more effectively and in ways that create self-respect and convey respect for others.
      • Help students move from concern about themselves to an awareness of the needs, views, and rights of others.
      • Concerned with development of tolerance and integrity in their students and conduct their classes in a manner that encourages respect for individual differences related to;
        • Skills,
        • Culture,
        • Gender,
        • Ethnicity,
        • Language diversity,
        • Physical exceptionalities, and
        • Other factors.
      • Employ specific strategies that extend learning to all students.
      • Develop project-based activities that require cooperation and provide opportunities for students from different backgrounds and abilities to work together toward common goals.
      • Use diverse strategies to enable students to see themselves and the consequences of their actions more clearly.
      • Understand that self-confidence comes from the development of skill and competence.
      • Hold high expectations for all students and demand hard work to ensure achievement of such expectations.
      • Are careful to model perseverance, self-direction, and dedication to work, and they make sure students understand how much their teachers appreciate their accomplishments.
    • Development of Student Initiative and Teamwork Skills
      • Create a variety of opportunities for students to;
        • Take action,
        • Assume responsibility,
        • Exercise leadership, and
        • Develop initiative.
    • Encouraging the Development of Sound Social, Personal, and Civic Ethics
      • Foster civic and social responsibility in their students by providing them with opportunities for joint decision making through participation in the leadership and governance of the classroom.
      • Design instruction that allows students to apply such knowledge to diverse
        • Events,
        • Themes,
        • Topics, and
        • Situations that lead students to confront academic and civic dilemmas simultaneously.
      • Seek ways of instilling in their students character traits such as;
        • Punctuality,
        • Honesty,
        • Fairness, and
        • Tolerance that will serve them well not only in their work but throughout their lives.
      • Work to build positive and caring relationships with and among students.
      • Model the kind of communities they hope their students will become a part of and perpetuate.
      • Encourage such students to broaden their perspectives by taking part in other arenas of life.
      • Know that in many settings, workers are confronted with ethical dilemmas.
      • Help students understand the kinds of ethical decisions they may be called upon to make and provide them with opportunities to practice making sound judgments.
  12. Improving Education through Professional Development and Outreach

    Being an accomplished teacher requires continual attention to one's practice. Teachers who do not steadily work to refine their practice may find themselves stagnating in their careers, or losing ground in their profession. Accomplished teachers regularly work collaboratively with families, colleagues, and others to ensure the continued quality and effectiveness of their teaching and their programs. The four standards that follow describe the ways in which accomplished teachers engage in regular activities within and beyond the classroom walls to strengthen their practice.

  13. Reflective Practice
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators regularly analyze, evaluate, and strengthen the effectiveness and quality of their practice through lifelong learning.)
      • Consider reflection on their practice central to their responsibilities as professionals.
      • Continually;
        • Extend their knowledge,
        • Perfect their technique, and
        • Refine their philosophy of education.
      • Regularly examine their own strengths and weaknesses and employ that knowledge in their planning.
      • Analyze the relative merits of both older and newer pedagogical approaches and judge the appropriateness of these approaches for their own particular circumstances.
      • Regularly engage in the process of professional growth and development.
      • Are motivated by the rapid change they see around them
        • In the workplace,
        • In technology, and
        • In research literature.
      • Are spurred by the desire to equip students for an evolving future.
      • Follow several paths that often include;
        • Interacting with other professionals,
        • Exploring new resources,
        • Attending professional conferences and workshops,
        • Studying the professional literature,
        • Returning to business and industry, and
        • Participating in advanced education programs.
      • Distinguish themselves through their capacity for ongoing,
        • Dispassionate self-examination;
        • Their openness to innovation;
        • Their willingness to experiment with new pedagogical approaches; and
        • Their readiness to change in order to strengthen their teaching.
    • Evaluating Results and Seeking Input Systematically from a Variety of Sources
      • Often hold conversations with students and employers about the;
        • Quality,
        • Climate, and
        • Interactions in their class.
      • Carefully analyze input received from formal and informal conferences with;
        • Families,
        • Guardians,
        • Students, and others.
      • Reflect on their;
        • Planning
        • Monitoring,
        • Assessment, and
        • Instructional techniques.
      • Every class and every activity provide an opportunity for reflection and improvement.
      • Encourage students to reflect and debrief after project work.
      • Consider the results of their actions.
      • When things go well, think about why the class succeeded and how to adapt the lessons learned to other classes.
      • When things go poorly, reflect on how to avoid such results in the future.
      • Take opportunities to assess themselves from the review of student work in progress and final student products.
      • Regularly seek advice from colleagues through;
        • Discussions,
        • In-class observation of their own teaching, and
        • Personal observation of others’ practice.
      • Eagerly share their ideas with colleagues, serving as “critical friends,” and they test and refine their evolving approaches to instruction.
    • Reflecting on One’s Own Point of View
      • Consider the effects of their own;
        • Cultural background,
        • Biases,
        • Values, and
        • Personal experiences on their practice.
      • Are alert to their own philosophical biases and take these into account when dealing with students whose backgrounds, beliefs, or values may differ significantly from the teachers’ own.
      • Seek to treat each student fairly by working carefully through such conflicts.
      • Understand they will be most effective with students by modeling responsible, respectful behavior.
      • Become attuned to the ways their own beliefs and behaviors influence their practice for better or worse.
    • Continually Refining Practice through Study and Self-Examination
      • Stay abreast of current research, trends, and information by;
        • Reading professional and technical journals,
        • Actively participating in related professional organizations and in-service workshops,
        • Completing graduate coursework,
        • Observing other accomplished teachers, and
        • Collaborating with colleagues and other professionals.
      • Stay abreast of significant developments, new findings, and debates in their field, aware that such efforts are essential in the rapidly changing worlds of business and industry.
      • Keep up with prevailing trends and new technologies and processes.
        • Adapt their practice as needed to account for such developments.
      • Understand that some workplace changes are controversial, and they have well-considered positions on such issues.
      • Have cogent reasons for what they do and can explain those reasons clearly to;
        • Students,
        • Parents,
        • Guardians,
        • Colleagues,
        • Administrators,
        • School board members, and
        • Guidance counselors,
        • Among others.
      • Take responsibility for their own professional growth and development.
      • Explore topics in which they may have limited expertise and experiment with;
        • Alternative materials,
        • Approaches, and
        • Instructional strategies.
      • Participate in a wide range of reflective practices.
        • Keep a journal of how their own personal biases affect their teaching, or
        • Conduct action research in their classrooms.
        • Collaborate with education researchers or other colleagues to critically examine their practice.
      • Reflection;
        • Reinforces their creativity,
        • Stimulates their personal growth,
        • Tests new ideas, and
        • Enhances their professionalism.
      • Are models of the educated individual;
        • Regularly sharpening their judgment,
        • Expanding their repertoire of teaching methods, and
        • Deepening their knowledge base.
      • Exemplify high ethical ideals and embrace the highest professional standards in assessing their practice.
  14. Collaborative Partnerships
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators work with colleagues, the community, business and industry, and postsecondary institutions to extend and enrich the learning opportunities available to students and to ease school-to-work transitions. )
      • Pride themselves on making the best connections possible between school and the workplace.
      • Understand they are more likely to meet this demand through the development and maintenance of several types of collaborative partnerships, including those with;
        • Professional colleagues,
        • Local businesses, and
        • Community and postsecondary institutions.
      • Often must advocate for their programs before administrators and the community.
      • Can articulate to other educators and lay audiences the virtues of their programs and identify potential threats to program integrity.
    • Building Partnerships with Business, Industry, Labor, and the Community
      • Cultivate extensive partnerships with;
        • Businesses,
        • Industries,
        • Agencies,
        • Labor, and the
        • Community to ensure that program content is well aligned with the demands of work.
      • Cultivate relationships with such individuals and organizations to ensure program viability and quality.
        • Together these partners may serve a variety of functions, including;
          • Curriculum development,
          • Standard setting,
          • Equipment and technology procurement, and
          • The design of workplace learning opportunities such as;
            • Apprenticeships and
            • Internship experiences.
      • Ensure the appropriateness of student placement through the establishment of internships and other opportunities well matched with student needs.
      • Work collaboratively with business and community partners to negotiate beneficial opportunities for students according to;
        • Student needs,
        • Classroom and industry standards, and
        • The needs of local industry.
      • Also rely on partners to;
        • Lend or donate equipment and materials,
        • Facilitate job placement,
        • Provide job-shadowing experiences, and
        • Present in-service programs and workshops.
      • Are adept at assessing the field for firms that will offer experiences, equipment, or training consistent with their program goals.
      • Look to business to help them update their;
        • Industry knowledge,
        • Standards, and
        • Skills, an
        • To arrange for teacher externships.
    • Collaborating with Career and Technical Educators and Colleagues from Other Disciplines
      • Are adept at working in and leading teams of teachers and industry personnel and at creating integrated projects.
      • Have knowledge and experience in project-based and integrated curriculum, including the different approaches to both.
      • Are skilled at encouraging teachers who are used to practicing independently to work together to achieve common goals.
    • Collaborating with Postsecondary Colleagues
      • Concerns extend beyond providing students with experiences in the workplace, they encourage students to experience and explore postsecondary education.
      • Take the responsibility to provide students with exposure to and experience in postsecondary schools and are skilled in working with colleagues in postsecondary institutions to achieve this end.
      • Are adept at developing partnerships that begin the process of institutional alignment by encouraging the involvement of postsecondary faculty and staff to help define program goals and content.
  15. Contributions to the Education Profession
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators work with colleagues and the larger educational community both to improve schools and to advance knowledge and practice in their field.)
      • See their responsibilities extending beyond the classroom to the welfare of;
        • Their school,
        • Their colleagues, and
        • Their area of expertise.
      • See themselves as prominent members in the larger learning community, contributing to the professional culture and intellectual environment of the school.
      • Can be found serving a variety of roles in such areas as school-based management and staff and curriculum development.
    • Contributing to the School
      • Are team players who believe they have much to contribute as well as much to gain by collaborating with others.
      • Challenge ideas and assumptions as they build a strong curriculum and professional culture with their colleagues.
      • Seek to repair the historical split between academic and vocational education, and non–college-bound and college-bound students.
      • Are central players in redesigning the secondary school experience for all students.
      • Draw upon a range of disciplines through practical career and technical applications.
    • Collaborating with Colleagues
      • Act as a resource to other colleagues, perhaps as;
        • Mentor teachers,
        • Peer coaches, or
        • Student teacher supervisors.
      • May help develop lessons and curriculum or design and provide staff development.
      • May observe colleagues at work and serve as a “critical friend,” sharing their observations and coaching colleagues toward stronger practice.
    • Advancing Knowledge in Their FieldSeek such opportunities because of their belief that they have the ability to constructively affect the quality of teaching, both locally and in the larger education landscape.
      • Are committed to advancing their field.
      • May contribute to a variety of professional development activities that extend beyond their school.
      • May appear on the programs of or take on leadership responsibilities in state, regional, or national organizations that support the improvement of career and technical education and the professional growth of experienced and novice teachers.
      • Might also collaborate with faculty from postsecondary education to seek solutions to pressing problems in the field.
      • Might conduct action research in their own classroom, or publish articles in professional journals about their own approaches and methods.
  16. Family and Community Partnerships
    • (Accomplished career and technical educators work with families and communities to achieve common goals for the education of all students.)
      • Understand and value the central and distinctive role these individual families play and find opportunities to build strong partnerships with them.
      • Welcome the participation of family and community members in class activities and take the initiative in encouraging them to become a part of school life.
      • Know the role of families and the community is not only to provide input.
      • Clearly signal through word and deed the importance of both as partners with the school in preparing young people for the adult world.
    • Gaining Insight into Students through Partnerships with Families
      • Recognize that families have experiences and insights that, once tapped, can enrich the quality of education for students.
      • Understand that the nature of the family has evolved significantly from earlier times.
      • Establish rapport with families.
      • Seek common ground and attempt to build understanding that will serve students’ best interests.
    • Cultivating Families’ Interest in Supporting Their Children’s Education
      • Effectively communicate with families about students' accomplishments, successes, and needs for improvement, including means for attaining higher goals.
      • Attempt to respond thoughtfully and thoroughly to such healthy interest in students’ futures.
      • Inform families about;
        • The consequences of course selection,
        • The availability of work-based opportunities, and
        • The importance of planning further education.
      • Search for ways to share the school’s objectives and expectations for its students, as well as the reasons for group or individual assignments.
      • Provide families with an accurate portrait of student progress.
      • Offer parents suggestions on how to help students;
        • Develop better learning habits and skills,
        • Complete homework,
        • Set goals, and
        • Improve performance.
      • May address other family needs by assisting families in finding additional resources and services outside the school, such as health care and counseling.
      • Actively seek to involve families in every aspect of the educational process.
      • Help establish avenues for family input and involvement in the development of curriculum and school improvement plans.
      • Keep families informed of these avenues and encourage family participation.
      • Encourage their participation in schoolwide programs.
      • Help parents understand school processes and policies, thereby increasing the likelihood that families will remain involved in students’ education.
      • Encourage support from families in ways that help improve schools.
      • Know the importance of family and community involvement in the overall functioning of the school.
      • Seek parental support for their programs.
      • Seek to enlist parents in evaluating the current effectiveness of programs and guiding future directions.
      • Recognize that, particularly with programs that are neglected and beleaguered, an active and involved parent community can be the difference between a marginal program and a vital one.